Clearly, three wires are more than enough to configure an outlet. The same applies to GFCIs, lights, and switches. What is the point of using six wires? This assumes that you have three black and three white lines.
If you add three ground wires to the mix, that brings the total to nine wires. Despite what some laypeople think, this is not a mistake. Keep the following in mind:
1). What Do The Colors Mean?
The number of wires does not change the meaning of each color. The three black wires are all hot. The three white wires are neutral. Therefore, the black conductors will connect to a brass screw and the white lines to the neutral.
You don’t have to change the meaning of each wire simply because you have three instead of one. The general naming and wiring conventions won’t change.
2). What Do The Wires Do?
Here, things change slightly. As usual, the black wire is hot, bringing the current from the source to the device. On the other hand, the white wire (neutral) will send the current back to the source.
A circuit won’t work unless you create a loop where the current runs to and from the panel. So what changes? What makes three black and white wires different from one black and white wire? The three black and white lines won’t stop at bringing the power to the device you want to operate.
They will also send that power onward to the next device. For instance, if you have an outlet, some wires will transmit the current to one outlet while other lines push it forward to the next receptacle in the series. Again, each wire’s purpose doesn’t change. However, the way you deploy the conductors will vary slightly.
3). When Three Wires Are Necessary?
The function of the six wires tells you where you should expect to find them. If you need six wires to run one outlet while sending the power onward to the next outlet, what does this mean? The outlet is in the middle of a circuit instead of the end.
Suffice it to say, you shouldn’t tamper with a device boasting six or nine wires unless you know what you’re doing. Laypeople should stick to three wires. Three-wire configurations are straightforward. You are less likely to mess them up.
How To Connect 3 Black Wires And 3 White Wires?
The key is to tie each set of three wires together via a wire nut before running one of the wires to the correct screw.
For instance, connect three black wires to a wire nut and then run one of them to the brass screw. Do this for the white and green or bare wires. Connecting multiple wires to the same screw in an outlet is discouraged.
You can’t trust the wires to maintain a secure connection to each terminal. You also risk overloading the outlet tabs and starting a fire because you expect one screw in a device to feed multiple devices down the line.
Some electricians believe each set of screws on an outlet serves a different purpose. For instance, the screws at the top bring the power to the outlet, while the screws at the bottom take the power out to the next receptacle.
However, others disagree with that sentiment and encourage consumers to use any screw they want so long as they connect each color to the correct screw.
You may notice some differences in the wiring configuration depending on the device. But the general principle remains the same. Consider a GFCI’s wiring configuration:
- A GFCI has a load and line side. The line side accommodates wires that run the GFCI. The lines taking power to receptacles downstream will connect to the load side.
- Combine the black wires under a wire nut and run the pigtail to the brass line screw. Do the same for the white wires and wrap the pigtail around the silver line screw.
- Use the ‘TEST’ button to test the GFCI. Pressing the button should trip the GFCI.
You can do the reverse, where you make the connections and then splice. That is to say, you connect one black wire to the brass screw on the line side and one white wire to the silver screw on the line side.
Then you splice the two remaining black wires before adding a pigtail. Apply the same procedure to the two remaining white wires. If you have ground wires, connect and splice the remaining wires after connecting the first line to the ground screw.
At this point, you can wrap things up with the load side. Connect the black pigtail to the load side’s brass screw, the white pigtail to the load side’s silver screw, and the green pigtail to the green terminal.
Every other device you encounter will most likely use a variation of the configuration above where the extra wires push the power onward to a device downstream.
Common Mistakes To Avoid When Working With 3 Black and White Wires
1). Don’t make assumptions about the identities of the wires. Use a multimeter to test each wire. Don’t assume that a black wire is automatically hot. Color schemes change all the time.
2). Don’t perform installations without checking your local handbook. Make sure you keep abreast of the wiring rules and regulations. The last thing you want is to receive a fine because you installed an outlet or light switch without a permit.
3). Don’t forget to label the wires after testing them, especially if each wire’s identity contradicts the color scheme you know. For instance, if the multimeter identifies the black wire as neutral and the white wire as hot. If someone left labels on the cables, use them.
4). Don’t touch the wires without de-energizing the circuit. And even when you kill the power with the breaker, don’t forget to test the cables before handling them. You should also wear gloves and goggles in case someone accidentally turns the power back on while you’re working.
5). Don’t use the back stub holes. You can’t trust them to hold the wires securely. You should always wrap the conductors around the screws. Additionally, you should avoid devices that only offer stub holes. For instance, most GFCI outlets have stub holes and screws. But some rare models will only provide stub holes. Avoid them.
6). Don’t try to connect all the wires to the same screws in a single device. There’s a limit to the number of amps the tab between the screws can handle.
7). Are all the live wires connected to the same circuit? If they originate from different circuits and you want to install a duplex outlet, remove the tab between the receptacles and place each receptacle on a different circuit. Otherwise, the breaker will trip once you switch the power back on.
8). Laypeople are more likely to reverse the hot and neutral because they have six wires at their disposal. This is dangerous because it can lead to fatal shocks. Remember that the neutral connects to the silver screw, and the hot wire runs to the brass terminal. The ground uses the green screw.
9). Make sure the wires are long enough. Otherwise, you will make poor connections.
10). Don’t forget to ground a three-slot outlet. Some people get so fixated on the three black and three white wires they forget the ground. Yes, the outlet will work without the ground, but this leaves you vulnerable. The ground provides an alternative path for the excess current when a malfunction, short circuit, or surge occurs. Don’t ignore the ground wires coming out of the wall.
11). Wrap the black and white wires clockwise when you loop them around a screw. This closes the loop firmly when you tighten the screw. Wrapping the wires anticlockwise will open the loop when you tighten the screw.